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IJMERR 2022 Vol.11(5): 365-372
DOI: 10.18178/ijmerr.11.5.365-372

Development of Humanoid Robot Head Based on FACS

Nguyen Khac Toan, Le Duc Thuan, Le Bao Long, and Nguyen Truong Thinh
Department of Mechatronics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, Thu Duc City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Abstract—Advances in artificial intelligence have allowed humanoid robots to communicate and serve human needs. However, displays are often used for humanoid robots to perform expressions, limiting the authenticity and naturalness of human-robot interactions. This paper presents the design and analysis method of the humanoid robot head to improve interoperability. At first, the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) was used to determine which Action units were required to perform expressions. Control points are required to generate Action units, and they are determined based on the action of facial muscles. In the next step, the humanoid robot head is divided into 3 parts: eyes, jaw-lip, and neck. Each section was dug into anatomy to research the shape, size, and range of motion of bones and joints. Mechanisms are designed based on this data to realistically simulate the structure and motion of individual parts of the human head. In addition, the forward and inverse kinematics problems of each mechanism are also solved to determine the control equation of each control point and workspace. These results demonstrated the theoretical operability of mechanisms that are suitable for simulating human facial motions. Finally, a humanoid robot head is implemented based on this method to evaluate the capability to simulate motion and perform expression. Experiment results show the simulation rate is up to 94.72%, and the expression recognition rate is 89.93%.

Index Terms—humanoid robotic head, mechanisms, FACS, Facial Action Coding System, robotic emotion

Cite: Nguyen Khac Toan, Le Duc Thuan, Le Bao Long, and Nguyen Truong Thinh, "Development of Humanoid Robot Head Based on FACS," International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 365-372, May 2022. DOI: 10.18178/ijmerr.11.5.365-372

Copyright © 2022 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.