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Optimization of Microwave-assisted Extraction of Anthocyanin from Clitoria Ternatea Flowers

I. Izirwan, T. D. Munusamy, N. H. Hamidi, and S. Z.Sulaiman
Faculty of Chemical & Process Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

Abstract—Currently, public awareness towards the usage of dyes and colorants from plant extracts as an alternative for synthetic colorants are increasing. Hence, the blue colour of Clitoria Ternatea flowers signifies the presence of anthocyanin which has numerous benefits. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of anthocyanin from Clitoria Ternatea flowers using ethanol as solvent based on the design of experiment given by response surface methodology was performed. A central composite design was applied to evaluate the optimal conditions of three process variables namely extraction temperature (°C), extraction time (min) and liquid to solid ratio (mL/g). The concentration of anthocyanin was analyzed using pH differential method via UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. At quadratic model of R2=0.76633, the obtained extraction yield of the blue dye was 49.97%. A validation test was carried out under critical conditions gave 48.61% of extraction yield which was close to the predicted value of 49.36%. As for the total anthocyanin content (TAC), 0.457 mg/g of anthocyanin was obtained. In a nutshell, MAE is a viable extraction method for extracting anthocyanins from Clitoria Ternatea flowers. Thus, Clitoria Ternatea extract has a potential use as an alternative source of food colorants replacing the existing synthetic dyes. 

Index Terms—extraction, microwave-assisted, anthocyanin, optimization, response surface methodology

Cite: I. Izirwan, T. D. Munusamy, N. H. Hamidi, and S. Z.Sulaiman, "Optimization of Microwave-assisted Extraction of Anthocyanin from Clitoria Ternatea Flowers," International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research, Vol. 9, No. 9, pp. 1246-1252, September 2020. DOI: 10.18178/ijmerr.9.9.1246-1252

Copyright © 2020 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.